Thyroid cysts are mostly benign formations. We find them very often in the general population, especially in women. They occur individually, in only one part of the thyroid gland or we can find them in large numbers in the entire thyroid gland.
Causes of cysts on the thyroid gland
Thyroid cysts most often occur as a result of degenerative disorders, i.e. deterioration of thyroid tissue and inflammatory and autoimmune changes. In doing so, cavities are formed in which there is some form of liquid and sometimes blood.
We distinguish between simple cysts (the entire cyst is filled with fluid) and complex cysts (in addition to the fluid, a compact, solid part is also visible in the cyst cavity). Over time, their number and size can change, from just a few millimeters to several centimeters or even more. In certain cases, this condition requires treatment, especially if there is enlargement and/or inflammation of the cyst, bleeding into the cyst or pressure on surrounding structures. This causes various complaints, most often discomfort or a feeling of discomfort, difficulty swallowing or breathing, especially when moving the head or sleeping.
Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnostic treatment includes specialist and ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland, determination of TSH value, less often cytological puncture and determination of antibodies. If the malignant potential of the cyst is suspected, a cytological puncture is mandatory. In the case of inflammation and enlargement of the cyst, it is necessary to evacuate the contents of the cyst by puncture and sometimes to carry out antibiotic treatment. Other forms of treatment include surgery, while hormonal treatment alone is not necessary. However, in the majority of cases, only regular ultrasound controls with periodic determination of TSH are necessary.