Pituitary tumors (prolactinoma, somatotropinoma, thyrotropinoma, corticotropinoma)
Pituitary tumors are almost always benign formations that arise in the pituitary gland, but their "malignancy" is characterized by their expansive growth, which leads to disruption of the pituitary function itself and a number of other symptoms and signs. It rarely happens that tumors arise in the pituitary gland that are not functional (do not produce hormones) and with their growth directly destroy the tissue of the pituitary gland, which is then manifested by its reduced function (hypopituitarism). Most often, we find conditions in which there is an increase in the function of the pituitary gland (hyperpituitarism) - it is a growth of the so-called functional tumors that secrete one or more hormones. The most common types are prolactinoma (secreting the hormone prolactin - PRL), somatotropinoma (secreting the hormone growth hormone - GH), thyrotropinoma (secreting the hormone thyrotropin - TSH) and corticotropinoma (secreting the hormone corticotropin - ACTH).
Clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment
The clinical presentation and treatment differs on the type of tumor. The diagnostic procedure includes a specialist examination, laboratory and hormonal tests, genetic testing and additional diagnostic methods that often include MR imaging, ophthalmological and neurological examination. The therapeutic approach is based on drug treatment, targeted radiation (gamma-knife) and operative (neurosurgical) removal of the pituitary tumor, which is carried out through the nasal cavity.