Diabetes, its complications and treatment
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period. It is one of the leading causes of death in Croatia at fourth place, and then 2017 more than 300,000 people and Croatia alone have diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. A test called the HbA1C blood test estimates your blood sugar levels over the previous three months. Your doctor uses it to see how well your blood sugar is controlled. That helps them know your risk of complications.
There are a few types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, other specific types and diabetes during pregnancy.
Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It happens when your body attacks your pancreas with antibodies. The organ is damaged and doesn't make insulin. Many of the health problems that can come with type 1 happen because of damage to tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). People with type 1 also have a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. Treatment with insulin is required for survival.
Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes. But it’s become more common in children and teens over the past 20 years, largely because more young people are overweight or obese. About 90% of people with diabetes have type 2. When you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas usually creates some insulin. But either it’s not enough or your body doesn’t use it like it should. Insulin resistance, when your cells don’t respond to insulin, usually happens in fat, liver, and muscle cells. Treatment for type 2 diabetes involves keeping a healthy weight, eating right, and exercising. Some people need medication like metformin and other.