Laminectomy surgery and correction of the deformities of the cervical spine with fixation and spondylolisthesis is performed when there are complex changes of the cervical spine with spinal canal stenosis and/or intervertebral foramina (spinal and foramen stenosis) on multiple levels and with spine deformities.
The consequences of these changes are damage to the spinal cord and/or cervical spinal nerves, as well as the loss of the correct posture of the cervical spine. This type of surgery open type posterior approach is used, and it is executed in three parts. The first part of the surgery is to approach the bony part of the spine. After the skin and muscle fascia cut, paravertebral muscles are removed from the spine to show the bony parts. The second part of the surgery is a laminectomy. In this part, ligaments and bones that are changed and narrow the spinal canal and/or intervertebral foramina. The third part of the surgery is to correct the deformities and stabilize the spine. In this part, screws are inserted in the vertebra and then they are connected with a longitudinal element (most likely a bar) and then the deformities are removed in the best possible manner.
Stabilization is concluded with the insertion of the own (autogenous), foreign (allogenous) or artificial (alloplastic) bone with which the spine is stabilized (spondylodesis). After surgery, exterior immobilization can be used (rigid cervical orthosis) until spondiyodesis occurs. The therapeutic effect of this surgery is individual. After surgery, neck and arm pain are reduced, and with rehabilitation the strength of the arms and legs gradually improves. A few months after rehabilitation are necessary for full recovery. In a small number of patients, some difficulties can return after a few months or years.