Laminectomy are correction of deformities of the low back spine with fixation and spondylolisthesis is performed with complex changes to the low back part of the spine with the narrowing of the spinal canal and/or intervertebral foramina (spinal and foramina stenosis) on multiple levels with spine deformities. Consequences of these changes are damage to the spinal nerves of the lower back, as well as the loss of correct posture and stability of the spine. The consequences of these changes are damage to the spinal cord and/or cervical spinal nerves, as well as the loss of the correct posture of the cervical spine. This type of surgery open type posterior approach is used, and it is executed in three parts.
The first part of the surgery is to approach the bony part of the spine. After the skin and muscle fascia cut, paravertebral muscles are removed from the spine to show the bony parts. The second part of the surgery is a laminectomy. In this part, ligaments and bones that are changed and narrow the spinal canal and/or intervertebral foramina. The third part of the surgery is to correct the deformities and stabilize the spine. In this part, screws are inserted in the vertebra and then they are connected with a longitudinal element (most likely a bar) and then the deformities are removed in the best possible manner.
Stabilization is concluded with the insertion of the own (autogenous), foreign (allogenous) or artificial (alloplastic) bone with which the spine is stabilized (spondylodesis). The surgery is concluded by inserting a tube to drain the unnecessary blood and suturing that wound layer by layer. After surgery, external immobilization (rigid lumbar orthosis) can be used until spondylodesis occurs.
The therapeutic effect of this surgery is individual. In most patients, the degree of low back pain and/or sciatica reduces, and mobility improves. A few months after rehabilitation are necessary for full recovery. In a small number of patients, some difficulties can return after a few months or years.