Acute complications of diabetes

Acute complications include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic coma, and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.

Hypoglycemia, or abnormally low blood glucose (below 2,5 mmol/L ), is an acute complication of several diabetes treatments. The patient may become agitated, sweaty, weak, and have many symptoms of sympathetic activation of the autonomic nervous system resulting in feelings akin to dread and immobilized panic. In most cases, hypoglycemia is treated with sugary drinks or food. In severe cases, an injection of glucagon

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness and other. In treatment, hidration in necessary, as well as loweing blood sugar levels and control electrolites.

Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, with formation of an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. It is a form of metabolic acidosis, in which excessive acid accumulates due to a problem with the body's oxidative metabolism. The diagnosis is made on biochemical analysis of blood.

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